The aim of CBT is to help you explore and change how you think about your life, and free yourself from unhelpful patterns of behaviour.
You set goals with your therapist and may carry out tasks between sessions.
A course usually involves around 12 to 20 sessions.
CBT has been shown to work for a variety of mental health problems, including:
- panic attacks
- obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
- post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
- some eating disorders, especially bulimia
CBT is available for people with depression, anxiety disorders and other mental health problems that it's been proven to help.
There are also self-help books and computer courses based on CBT to help you overcome common problems like depression.
Guided self-help is recommended as a treatment for depression, anxiety and panic disorder.
With guided self-help you work through a CBT-based workbook or computer course with the support of a therapist.
The therapist works with you to understand your problems and make positive changes in your life.
Guided self-help aims to give you helpful tools and techniques that you can carry on using after the course has finished.
During the course your therapist will support you with face-to-face appointments or phone calls.
Counselling is a talking therapy where you talk in confidence to a counsellor. They help you find ways to deal with difficulties in your life.
You may be offered counselling after your initial assessment if, for example, you:
are struggling to cope with a long-term condition
have chronic pain
have an addiction
are having fertility problems
Counselling usually consists of 6 to 12 sessions.
Counselling for depression
Counselling for depression has been specially developed to help people understand the underlying causes of their depression.
Counselling for depression is available through psychological therapies services.
It's usually offered to people who have mild to moderate depression and have already tried other therapies, such as guided self-help.
Behavioural activation is a talking therapy that aims to help people with depression take simple, practical steps towards enjoying life again.
It may be offered one-to-one or in a group with regular meetings or phone calls with a therapist.
The aim is to give you the motivation to make small, positive changes in your life.
You'll also learn problem-solving skills to help you tackle problems that are affecting your mood.
You'll usually be offered about 16 to 20 sessions.
Interpersonal therapy (IPT)
IPT is a talking treatment that helps people with depression identify and address problems in their relationships with family, partners and friends.
The idea is that poor relationships with people in your life can leave you feeling depressed.
Depression can in turn make your relationships with other people worse.
You may be offered IPT if you have severe depression or depression that hasn't responded to other talking therapies, such as CBT.
IPT is usually offered over 16 to 20 sessions.
Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR)
EMDR is another talking therapy that's been developed to help people who have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
People who have PTSD may experience intrusive thoughts, memories, nightmares or flashbacks of traumatic events in their past.
EMDR helps the brain reprocess memories of the traumatic event so you can let go of them.
EMDR can be a distressing process, so it's important to have a good support network of family and friends around you if you plan to try it.
A course of treatment is likely to be 8 to 12 sessions.
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT)
Mindfulness-based therapies help you focus on your thoughts and feelings as they happen moment by moment.
They can be used to help treat depression and addiction.
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) combines mindfulness techniques like meditation and breathing exercises with cognitive therapy.
MBCT is one of the options that may be offered to you after a course of treatment for depression to help stop it coming back.